Example of decoding in reading

What is Decoding? - Reading Horizon

  1. Decoding is important because it is the foundation on which all other reading instruction builds. If students cannot decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be limited and their reading comprehension will suffer. Teaching higher-level reading strategies to students stuck at the word level is ineffective
  2. Decoding connects how words sound to how those sounds are represented by letters. Phonics instruction helps readers make those connections. For example, when the letter c is followed by the vowels e, i, or y, it usually makes its soft sound, as in cell, city, and cypress. With other vowels, the letter c makes a hard sound, as in cap, code, and cut
  3. In reading decoding, readers sound out words by pronouncing their parts and then joining those parts to form words. In order to read with sufficient fluency to comprehend what is being read, readers must be able to decode words and join the parts quickly and accurately. Children with learning disabilities such as dyslexia, basic reading, or.
  4. Decoding is the ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words. Understanding these relationships gives children the ability to recognize familiar words quickly and to figure out words they haven't seen before. Guidelines for decoding instruction An effective program does the following
  5. There are many programs designed to teach decoding skills. Corrective Reading and Rewards are two examples. There are also strategies teachers can use in the classroom to assist students in decoding. Early elementary students need to have instruction and practice with letters and sounds. They need to hear these sounds and use letters or letter.
  6. Even the most proficient reader when decoding words is going to need to use context clues to read and understand heteronyms, words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently and with different meanings. Examples include: sow (female pig, plant seeds), wind (breeze/roll up), bow (ribbon, front of a boat)

This may be due to the importance of reading in all academic areas, as studies suggest math and writing LDs are also very common (Shaywitz, 2007; Willis, 2008). Word Attack Skills, Reading Decoding, and Reading Competency. Defining Terms. Phonological Awareness: skill at identifying and manipulating sounds Fluency and decoding goals. Reading level and accuracy: I use the fluency part of Foundational Skills Standards to write my reading level goals. I typically write my goals for about 1.5 years growth from where the kid is right now. I will write the goal for less if they haven't been progresssing and more if they are moving up levels quickly Some of the major decoding skills include recognizing sounds and sound blends, deciphering the meaning of a word through recognition or context and understanding the role of each word within a sentence. The following activities help a student build decoding skills. Recognizing Sounds and Sound Blends Give the Clown a Balloo The Simple View demonstrates that reading difficulties fall into three basic types: 1. Poor at Language Comprehension — Has adequate decoding skills and weak language comprehension skills. The extreme example of this profile is a hyperlexic student (a student with severe language comprehension issues and excellent decoding skills)

What Is Decoding? Understood - For learning and thinking

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  2. For example, in English, the letter C can make the sound /k/ or /s/. (The forward slashes indicate a sound rather than a letter.) Knowing how to pronounce letters or combinations of letters that symbolize specific sounds is known as decoding
  3. Decoding can also be sidetracked by semantic obstacles, such as misunderstood words or emotional reactions to certain terms. A memo that refers to women in the office as chicks or babes, for example, may disturb its receivers so much that they fail to focus on the total message
  4. Decoding the Reading of History: An Example of the Process David Pace There are few areas in which the differences in learning across academic dis-ciplines are more visible than in that of reading. The instruction read has such a radically different meaning in the context of courses in physics
  5. Below are sample IEP goals associated with six reading skills. 1. Reading skill: Decoding. Academic Standard: Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Decode multisyllabic words. Sample IEP Goal: By the end of the IEP period, when given a list of 40 multisyllabic words containing closed, open, consonant.

Reading Decoding and Learning Disabilitie

  1. An example of a properly functioning Slow Route. The graph to the RIGHT shows an example of a demonstrated average seven to nine year old Slow Route or phonological decoding performance. The bars may vary in length a bit, but overall the child demonstrated to be able to decode all presented nonwords
  2. Decoding skills are the foundation of reading . Decoding skills are critical for reading success. Early on, readers decode slowly as they must say each sound and blend the word. After several years of practice, kids begin to decode faster. Soon, the audible sound-by-sound reading melts away. Eventually, kids utter the entire word in one utterance
  3. Teaching Encoding and Decoding. Phonics instruction was the earliest method for teaching reading. Children were taught letter names and simple syllables to construct words. This is an analytical approach where bits of words were used to build syllables, then words, and meaningful phrases (p. 69). Choral reading is more global and emerged in the.
  4. utes Instructional reading: Basic p. 47 10
  5. Teachers will give children various activities to help them with their decoding of different sounds and words, for example: Reading specially-tailored phonics stories that concentrate on one particular sound at a time. For example: a story that has lots of words containing 'ch' in it
  6. Use nonsense words to assess students' knowledge of the alphabetic principle. 9. Employ the 3-2-1 Strategy. Use the 3-2-1 strategy to measure student engagement. After students read a passage, have them write 3 things they learned, 2 things that are interesting, and 1 question they may have about what they read. 10
  7. Decoding skills can help students spot words that are already familiar to them and to sound out new words. In the English language, the letters in some words don't make the sounds one would expect. Tough or Wednesday are examples of words students might encounter that they may have difficulty sounding out

Decoding Reading Rocket

Coding-decoding helps the children to improve their fluency, vocabulary, comprehension and to phonemic words. Coding-decoding helps to learn about how communication happens, Types of coding-decoding, learn to match the pattern with numbers, symbols, and letters. Coding decoding is the reasoning booster to improve reading skills and comprehension Decoding words can be hard to do when you are just starting out readings. In this video we give you some great ideas and examples of decoding words. We wil.. Two of the skills involved in decoding or word identification are phonemic awareness and phonics. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual units of sound. These units of sound are called phonemes. 1. Adolescents who are phonemically aware, for example, understand that three phonemes, /k/, /a/, and /t.

Advanced readers, especially those in academic contexts, might concentrate on decoding complex sentences. For example, let us imagine that learners are working on a text which contains this sentence: Developed countries, like those in Europe and North America, waste around 650 million tonnes of food each year and so do developing countries Decoding can also be sidetracked by semantic obstacles Opens in new window, such as misunderstood words or emotional reactions to certain terms. A memo that refers to women in the office as chicks or babes, for example, may disturb its receivers so much that they fail to focus on the total message and decoding narrative selections at her grade level. It is essential that she get accommodations to help her improve her basic reading skills. The student has shown improvement since the 00-01 school year but still needs extra support to build her skills in reading. Special education will enable the student to acquire basic reading skills Decoding Surveys Beginning Decoding Survey Advanced Decoding Survey More than 20 years of scientific, evidence-based reading research makes clear that all good readers must master certain basic skills. Those skills include the ability to decode words accurately - a skill that most struggling readers have difficulty with. This complimentary set o

Teaching Tutorial: Decoding Instruction 3 learned when reading one word (e .g ., the ai in rain) can be used to decode many words with that pattern (e .g .pain, gain, train and stain, as well as more sophisticated words, such as campaign, later in reading) . Once children are taught the sounds that letters and letter combinations make, they can begin to decode word For this reason, I discuss the decoding strategies with parents during conferences and send home a letter explaining the strategies and how to help children use them. This letter is included in the bundle, in English and Spanish. *Updated* Reading Strategy Bundle. I have just updated the entire Reading Strategies bundle! I've added digital. The reading expert Richard Vacca describes the shift as a development from 'fluent decoders' to 'strategic readers' - 'readers who know how to activate prior knowledge before, during and after reading, to decide what's important in a text, to synthesise information, to draw inferences during and after reading, to ask questions. In this best-selling guide the authors provide methods, strategies, and activities for teaching decoding and reading fluency that fit easily and effectively into any classroom situation. They debunk the common beliefs about teaching phonics, particularly the claim that the field is deeply divided in the fundamental view of teaching reading Instructional Activities > Decoding and Encoding Once children learn some phoneme-grapheme correspondences, they can begin decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling) words. The activities included in this section are designed to help children apply their phoneme-grapheme knowledge to decoding and/or encoding

Different papers have determined that there are multiple types of hyperlexia. For example, Darold Treffert proses there are three types: Type 1: Neurotypical children who are very early readers. Type 2: Autistic children who demonstrate very early reading as a splinter skill. Type 3: Very early readers who are not on the autism spectrum a Reading Simplified-created informal reading assessment of phonics, nonword decoding, and phonemic segmentation [download below]. The last option doesn't provide norm-referenced information but gives more clarity about other sub-processes, such as letter-sound knowledge, phonemic segmentation, and multisyllable decoding

reading test results, strengths, needs, measurable goals: examples noteseveral different examples of strengths and weaknesses in each area are provided as examples only. the iep team decides how many strengths and needs to include. grade 2 (instructional level: grade 1): deficits in all reading area Decoding Strategy: Try the other sound made by the letter(s). Practice: Cut out the sorting title cards and the words. Read and sort the words based on what sound each G or C makes. Try the different sounds out as you are reading and sorting to see which one is correct. Hard G gather Soft G gentle Hard C common Soft C cerea By ages 7 - 8, direct instruction extends to include advanced decoding skills along with wide reading of familiar, interesting materials that help promote fluency. Meanwhile, the child is being read to at levels above their own independent reading level to develop language, vocabulary and concepts (Chall, 1996) 5. The Simple View of Reading is supported by scientific research. Definitions. For purposes of the Simple View of Reading, skilled decoding (D) is defined as efficient word recognition (Hoover & Gough, 1990). This definition goes beyond the traditional definition of decoding as the ability to sound out words based on phonics rules Decoding is the process we use to read words on the page. For beginning readers, it often involves the sounding out of individual words by using phonics skills, developing an awareness of how each.

PLAAFP example (using color codes) Three areas of weakness: reading comprehension, written expression and basic reading decoding skills. READING COMPREHENSION WRITTEN EXPRESSION l BASIC READING DECODING Because John struggles with comprehending what he reads, he cannot understand grade level reading materials. He will need a goal to improve reading Reading comprehension is essential in college as students spend a lot of time reading textbooks to learn, interpret, analyze and understand concepts. Advanced Reading Beyond the basic technical components of reading, advanced readers can read and understand various styles of writing Synthetic Phonics The sounding-out-and-blending approach to decoding is known as synthetic phonics.In a synthetic phonics program, students are taught to decode new words by retrieving from memory the sound that each letter, or combination of letters, in a word represents and blending the sounds into a recognizable word (National Reading Panel, 2000) Encoding and decoding are important concepts for improving one's communication skills, especially in the electronic communication era where the use of proper grammar seems an ancient art. Encoding is the process of preparing a message to minimize. Stuart Hall proposed that there are three ways of decoding the meaning of a message. Many media systems have become aware of their more politically active and aware audiences. If a message is decoded according to its dominant reading, the message is left unquestioned. With a negotiated reading parts of the message are accepted an

Decoding Skills When Reading - The Educators Roo

A focus on reading for meaning rather than simply decoding is important for EAL learners. Research suggests that EAL learners tend to have greater phonological awareness than their peers and often demonstrate good decoding skills in English, but score less well in reading comprehension measures (Murphy and Franco 2016) Teaching students how to read can sometimes feel like an overwhelming task, especially for beginning readers. This article gives an overview on the various decoding strategies for reading that can help your students to become more efficient readers. Phonics, irregular words and word parts are some of the techniques that proficient readers use to build fluency and speed in reading While reading a passage, STUDENT will use decoding and word recognition skills with 80% accuracy four of five trials. Given a list of 10 vocabulary words, STUDENT will use words in sentences applying correct meaning to the words 90% accuracy 5 consecutive trials

This can be the basis for cultural misunderstandings: for example, the hand gesture made by joining the thumb and forefinger into a circle signifies 'OK' in the UK and the USA but in France it signifies 'worthless' or 'zero' and in Brazil it is an obscene gesture. See also encoding/decoding model; preferred reading Examples Of Stuart Hall's Encoding And Decoding Model. Topics: Mass media, Mass media, South Africa Pages: 5 (1072 words) Published: May 30, 2016. This essay will discuss and define Stuart Hall's encoding and decoding model, as well as the reception studies in relation to an advertisement by First National Bank entitled you can help

Effective Decoding Strategies To Improve Reading - The

3 Communications Process: Encoding and Decoding . In basic terms, humans communicate through a process of encoding and decoding.The encoder is the person who develops and sends the message. As represented in Figure 1.1 below, the encoder must determine how the message will be received by the audience, and make adjustments so the message is received the way they want it to be received Examples of CVC words include: Cat, Hen, Pig, Mop and Bus. The CVC Module: Introduces the CVC pattern and reinforces skill in decoding and fluently reading CVC words and syllables. Examples of CVC words include: Cat, Hen, Pig, Mop and Bus. Introduces sight and fun words, builds vocabulary and general knowledge For example, if your child needs a target to develop reading comprehension skills, a reading goal for your student might look something like this: By the end of June, and given a grade-level nonfiction text, my child will be able to answer multiple choice reading comprehension questions with at least 9 out of 10 correct

Reading disorders can also involve problems with specific skills: Word decoding. People who have difficulty sounding out written words struggle to match letters to their proper sounds. Fluency. People who lack fluency have difficulty reading quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (if reading aloud). Poor reading comprehension Word and structural analysis refers to the processes of deciphering words by examining their meaningful parts (decoding), and learning the definitions of words by exploring their meaningful parts (morphology). Decoding is using knowledge of sound-symbol relationships to correctly read and pronounce written words Decoding the reading of history: An example of the process Decoding the reading of history: An example of the process Pace, David; Middendorf, Joan 2004-06-01 00:00:00 In most disciplines, professors ask students to read without specifying what this operation means for their particular field. This chapter traces the path laid out in a cultural history class, where reading entails. Encoding is the process of hearing a sound and being able to write a symbol to represent that sound. Decoding is the opposite: it involves seeing a written symbol and being able to say what sound it represents. For example: if a child hears the sound /t/ and then writes the letter 't', this means they are able to encode this sound Corrective Reading Decoding also includes opportunities for students to graph their performance for a visual representation of words read per minute and errors (see sample Corrective Reading lesson in the next section). Reading Mastery Plus includes a thermometer that students color in as they pass reading checkouts of increasingly more words

First Grade: Reading Connected Text. Specific Skill: Accurately reading connected text using a 3-word sentence as example Skills taught prior to this clip were: Decoding (Sounding out) Things to look for in this clip Oct 4, 2016 - Make SURE your child makes progress in reading with great IEP goals for reading fluency and reading decoding. Learn How: Great IEP goals for reading let YOU know if your child is making adequate yearly progress in reading. They help you know if your child needs better, more, or different reading services.

• The Advanced Decoding Survey should not be administered until the middle of second grade. Grades 3-12 • It is appropriate to administer both the Beginning Decoding Survey and the Advanced Decoding Survey at any time during the year. It is important to note that the Beginning Decoding Survey should always be administered to students befor The document is divided into four main sections based on the focus of the assessments: reading, math, writing, and behavioral & social/emotional. Sample assessment items are in alphabetical order, and there is no explicit or implied endorsement of any assessment instrument or company What mystifies many parents is where and why the reading process breaks down. Although, problems may occur in any area, decoding, comprehension, or retention, the root of most reading problems, in. Decoding could be described with the receiver interpreting the message and simply visiting knowledge as to what the origin is usually interacting. Media: Encoding is often utilized to decrease the size of audio and video data. Decoding benefits a similar codec to rebuild the initial document coming from an encoded data file. Real life example

Decoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis • Identify and produce letter-sound correspondences, including consonants and short and long vowels • Blend sounds using knowledge of letter-sound correspondences in order to decode unfamiliar, but decodable, one-syllable grade-level word Learning Objectives. After reading this chapter, readers will be able to. identify the underlying elements of word recognition; identify research-based instructional activities to teach phonological awareness, decoding, and sight recognition of irregular sight words

Evidence-Based Reading Intervention Strategies: Decoding

Reading is the act of processing text in order to derive meaning. To learn to read, children must develop both fluent word reading and language comprehension (Gough & Tunmer,1986). Fluent word reading stems from underlying skills: phonological awareness, phonics and decoding, and automatic word recognition Decoding skills are the foundation of reading . Decoding skills are critical for reading success. Early on, readers decode slowly as they must say each sound and blend the word. After several years of practice, kids begin to decode faster. Soon, the audible sound-by-sound reading melts away. Eventually, kids utter the entire word in one utterance The Decoding strand was the focus of this study; the 4 levels (A, B1, B2, C) correspond to the students' decoding capacity, as assessed with a placement test. The Corrective Reading program has been evaluated on many occasions, though its effects on phonological processes have not previously been a focus What IS Decoding? The term decoding refers to the process of translating a printed word into a sound. To demonstrate, please read the following words aloud: dog, table, jump.This is an example of decoding regular words and is sometimes called word identification skill.Regular words are commonly used words, i.e., words frequently found in printed material Decoding Through Analogy is the process of learning to pronounce new words by using known or familiar words. Research shows that struggling readers learn phonics by recognizing word patterns used in similar and known words, not by memorizing rules (Caldwell & Jennings & Lerner, 2014, p.184)

Decades of reading research has revealed that young good readers study the print to attack unknown words, using a sound-based decoding approach. (For example, see reviews from leading reading researchers across multiple continents, such as Beginning to Read by Dr. Marilyn Adams (1990), Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (1998. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) was proposed by researchers Gough and Tunmer in 1986. It was developed to reconcile The Reading Wars argument of the 1980s, between advocates of bottom up processing (decoding) and those who supported top down processing (language comprehension.) The Simple View of Reading shows us that, while reading is a. Develop reading fluency to facilitate efficient reading of words and longer text. Some methods of fluency improvement—for example, guided repeated reading—have been effective with children and are likely to be effective with adolescents and adults. Explicitly teach the structure of written language to facilitate decoding and comprehension NIFDI Presents Two Webinars Highlighting DI Literacy and Math Programs Reading Mastery Transformations Authors Describe the Grades 2 and 3 Level Decoding the reading of history: An example of the process. David Pace. Faculty Learning Community, Indiana University This chapter traces the path laid out in a cultural history class, where reading entails identifying the essential elements of a text. Citing Literature. Volume 2004, Issue 98. Special Issue: Decoding the Disciplines.

Fluency and decoding goals - Spedhelpe

Decoding is processing written words into spoken words, including meanings, while encoding is the opposite. Decoding does not need to happen out loud; it can happen inside someone's head. In order to decode and encode, readers need to know how words are broken up into sounds, including how small sound differences can change meaning. They also. This process (phonological decoding) is unconscious and automatic, yet it's an integral part of reading. But in dyslexia, this process is disrupted . The roots of the problem arise much earlier

Activities to Practice Decoding Skills for Readin

Decoding of multisyllabic words!Reading of irregular words in which letters don't represent most common sounds!Reading decodable text 18 Decoding Instruction - progression 1.Associating letters and sounds. 2.Blending sounds into words. 3.Reading words to build fluency (accuracy and rate). 4.Segmenting and spelling words. 5.Reading decodable. Provide other examples of guided reading texts that contain targeted digraphs. Students search big books and classroom texts to find word examples that contain the targeted digraph. Students locate, decode and write in their reading response book or classroom anchor charts Description. Our Decoding Words lesson plan develops decoding skills and improves reading fluency. During this lesson, students are asked to work collaboratively, with a partner, to both pronounce and attempt to identify the meaning of given 8th grade level words. Students are also asked to put word decoding steps in order and answer questions. For example, teachers can ask students to practice decoding words and spelling them aloud or instruct them to practice reading words and then defining them. The table below offers some helpful hints for incorporating phonics and word study instruction

The Simple View of Reading Reading Rocket

Stage 1: Initial Reading and Decoding. Stage 1 typically includes children ages six and seven, or children in 1st grade and the beginning of 2nd grade. In this stage, children develop the skills necessary to interpret the relationships between written words and spoken words. Children in this stage begin to learn letter-sound relationships. The second important element underlying reading comprehension is decoding, which generically refers to the child's ability to recognize and process written information. While that may sound straightforward, it should be noted that children may try many different, often inappropriate decoding strategies before they become skilled decoders

The face is the best indicator of a person's emotions. Yet, it often is overlooked. Dr. Paul Ekman, whose research is the premise of the show Lie to Me, has done groundbreaking research on decoding the human face. He has shown that facial expressions are universal Decoding accuracy is the first prerequisite to fluency. It is important to understand what is impeding your child's acquiring the letter-sound rules that underlie decoding. Two major possibilities are: 1) a poor match with the child's reading program — some programs spend too little time with learning phonics rules Word decoding is the ability to use existing knowledge of letter‑sound relationships to correctly pronounce printed words. Free trial. Cracking the reading code takes practice and repetition. Decoding words, or sounding them out, is the ability to apply existing knowledge of letter‑sound relationships to correctly pronounce printed words

2-Syllable Chunking Explained. If a search engine sent you here while looking for a chunking strategy for decoding unfamiliar words, you should start at the page Multisyllable Method Overview. See the sidebar menu for an overview. As you have your child tackle the six-page list of 2-syllable chunked words over a span of several days, he will be. Phonics is the foundational skill upon which decoding rests, and decoding is in turn the skill necessary for a student to be fluent. Comprehension. Instructors often view reading skills in terms of a pyramid with fluency existing as a building block for comprehension In other words, to move their lips as if they're reading aloud. Decoding Difficulties get in the way of kids understanding the story. Make sure that children have sufficient decoding skills. If they can't decode the words, they won't know what they're reading. Appropriate Materials for child's reading level is essential. If a child is.

Your Child Needs This Skill: Metacognition - The Book Tree

Iacomus Roberto. 0:27. Collection Book New SAT Prep Book for Reading, Writing and Math Mastery: Decoding the Revised SAT. MadisonWatson. 0:07. Read New SAT Prep Book for Reading Writing and Math Mastery: Decoding the Revised SAT March. Mire. 0:16. Big Sales New SAT Prep Book for Reading, Writing and Math Mastery: Decoding the Revised SAT March Decoding — The process of using lettersound correspondences to recognize words. An assessment that examines a student's decoding skills looks at a child's reading accuracy. One example of this type of measure is to have a student read a passage of text as clearly and correctly as possible Decoding Instruction Kindergarten. Grade Level: Kindergarten School: Kihei Elementary School Location: Maui, Hawaii Videographer: Dima Yaremenko Elapsed Time: 12:39. Introduction: While the goal of reading instruction is always comprehension, systematic decoding instruction must occur in the primary grades to form the foundation for comprehension. We must always remember that decoding is. Reading comprehension should not be confused with reading accuracy, another very common form of reading assessment. In a reading accuracy assessment, a child is asked to read a passage of text clearly, without making any mistakes. The mistakes that the child does make are analyzed to find clues about the child's decoding strategies (not.

1st grade tips for building good reading habits – PS 32

Practicing letter-sound correspondences using the word box and letter cards or multisyllabic words with syllable cards are examples of instructional tools that teachers can implement in explicit and systematic ways to support the reading development of their students Decoding is the process of converting an encoded format back into the original sequence of characters. It is completely different from Encryption which we usually misinterpret. Encoding and decoding are used in data communications and storage. Encoding should NOT be used for transporting sensitive information Examples of Teaching Strategies: literacy reading and writing. literature circles promote the use of literacy content: reading and writing by students working in small groups to discuss a piece of literature; chapter in a novel, story book, newspaper article or a chosen piece of written context. Students can complete a set of literacy circle cue, sequenced and activity cards based upon a set. 1990) posits that reading is the product of two indepen-dent components: decoding and listening comprehen-sion. The model is captured in the equation D × C = R, where D = decoding, which Gough and Tunmer (1986) viewed as the ability to read isolated words quickly, accu-rately, and silently, fundamentally through the use o

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The Names Test: A Quick Assessment of Decoding Ability. Cunningham, Pat. Reading Teacher, v44 n2 p124-29 Oct 1990. Presents an instrument for assessing an individual student's decoding abilities by having a teacher analyze a student's attempts to pronounce a fictitious list of children's first and last names. Argues that the instrument is valid. Reading = Decoding x Language Comprehension According to the simple view, decoding and language (i.e., listening) comprehension ability are necessary for reading comprehension. If students lack decoding skills, they can still comprehend with strong listening comprehension ability - as long they can listen to text being read KS1 Decoding Strategies Reading Posters. 3 reviews. Reflecting on Learning » Respond to and compose texts » Describe how some skills in speaking, listening, reading/viewing, writing/representing help the development of language learners Encoding vs. Decoding Strategies. Encoding strategies enable the development of writing and spelling capabilities. Decoding strategies are techniques that help students to develop reading capabilities. Encoding and decoding skills have a common base, starting with phonological awareness and understanding of phonemes Because our language is alphabetic, decoding is an essential and primary means of recognizing words. There are simply too many words in the English language to rely on memorization as a primary word identification strategy (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997, see References). Beginning decoding (phonological recoding) is the ability to