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Felix Dzerzhinsky

Riesenauswahl an Büchern. Jetzt portofrei bestellen Entdecke felix bei Zalando. Bestelle jetzt bequem online Felix Dzerzhinsky was born on 11 September 1877 to ethnically Polish parents of noble descent, at the Dzerzhinovo family estate, about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the small town of Ivyanets in the Minsk Governorate of the Russian Empire (now Belarus ). In the Russian Empire, his family was of a type known as column-listed nobility ( ru) ( Russian. Felix Dzerzhinsky was freed from Butyrka after the February Revolution of 1917. Soon after his release, Dzerzhinsky's goal was to organize Polish refugees in Russia and then go back to Poland and fight for the revolution there. In Moscow he joined the Bolshevik party, writing to his comrades that the Bolshevik party organization is the.

Felix Dzerzhinsky was born on September 11, 1877 in a country estate of Dzerzhinovo, near Minsk, back then a part of the Russian Empire (now in Belarus). The son of impoverished Polish nobility, he was brought up in a strict Catholic tradition and was growing up fanatically religious The Felix Dzerzhinsky Watch Regiment was an elite motorized infantry regiment of the Ministry of State Security in East Germany. The birth date of Dzerzhinsky's infamous Cheka, December 20, has been declared a day of national celebration as Security Organs Day in Russia since 2005 Felix Dzerzhinsky, one of the great revolutionaries, was a steadfast Communist, a staunch defender of the revolution, a fighter for a better future for his own country and people and the whole of mankind. He was a man to be feared by the enemies of the revolution, a man whose life was a never-ending struggle to realise the ideals of communism Felix Dzerzhinsky. Felix Dzerzhinsky, the son of a Polish landowner, was born in Vilno in 1877. He joined the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party and helped to organize factory workers into trade unions. Dzerzhinsky was arrested in 1897 but managed to escape from Siberia two years later Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, Bolshevik leader, head of the first Soviet secret police organization. Son of a Polish nobleman, Dzerzhinsky joined the Kaunas (Kovno) organization of the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party in 1895. He became a party organizer, and, although he was arrested by th

Felix Dzerzhinsky - Bio, Family, Trivia | Famous Birthdays

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September 11, 1877 in a family of teachers in secondary schools EI Dzerzhinsky, the Catholic religion, had a son, named Felix.The social status of the future father of the chairman of the Cheka could be attributed to the landlords, though small, he owned a hamlet Dzerzhinovo. The family was a large but Felix grew up in her brothers and sisters. Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877 - 1926), the first head of Soviet counter-intelligence, still triggers controversy among Russians. Many people consider him a national hero, while others hold him. Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926) was one of the very instrumental figures of this effort. He was regarded as a genuine hero of the Revolution who did much to make Soviet communism possible. He was a.

Felix Dzerzhinsky was the first head of the feared Cheka, the first name given to post-revolutionary Russia's secret police force.Dzerzhinsky was born on September 11 th 1877 and died on July 20 th 1926. For all the power Dzerzhinsky wielded in the Cheka, he actually joined the Bolshevik Party quite late in his life. However, Dzerzhinsky always had the full support of Vladimir Lenin even. Felix Dzerzhinsky was born to ethnic Polish parents of noble descent on 11 September 1877 at the Dzerzhinovo family estate, about 15 km (9.3 mi) away from the small town of Ivyanets, in the Minsk Region, then part of the Russian Empire (today Belarus).His sister Wanda died at the age of 12, when she was accidentally shot with a hunting rifle on the family estate by one of the brothers

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Felix Dzerzhinsky - Wikipedi

  1. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (1877 - 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Polish and Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet statesman and member of the Russian Rite of the Templar Order.His party pseudonyms were Jacek, Jakub, Pereplyotchik (meaning bookbinder), Franek, Astronom, Józef and Domański. He was a member of several revolutionary committees such as the Polish Revkom as.
  2. Felix Edmundovich Iron Felix Dzerzhinsky. Russian Secret Police Chief. He was the founder and head of the Russian Cheka from 1917 to 1921, a forerunner institution of the Russian NKVD and Soviet KGB. He was also the founder of the Polish Social Democratic Party and was active in both Polish and Russian revolutionary movements
  3. Felix Dzerzhinsky : biography 1877 - 20 July 1926 Death Dzerzhinsky died of heart failure on 20 July 1926 in Moscow, immediately after a two-hour long speech to the Bolshevik Central Committee during which, visibly quite ill, he violently denounced the United Opposition directed by Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, and Lev Kamenev.Isaac Deutscher
  4. Felix Dzerzhinsky died of a heart attack at the young age of 49 just after delivering a speech denouncing the Trotsky-Zinoviev counter-revolutionary clique. To his dying day he defended the revolution and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, the homeland of the international proletariat, his body ravaged by years in prison, by exile, by the.

Polish-born Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky in Kharkov, Ukraine, 1920. He was the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later the KGB. Polish-born Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky with the committee for the conservation of Lenin's body, 1924. The committee members are Bonch-Bruevich,.. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński [ˈfɛliks dʑerˈʐɨɲski]; 11September O.S. 30 August187720 July 1926) was a Soviet statesman and a prominent member of Polish and Russian revolutionary movements. He is better known under his nickname as the Iron Felix,1 Bloody Felix, or abbreviation FD. His. The original statue of Dzerzhinsky, known as Iron Felix, once occupied a prime spot on Lubyanka Square in central Moscow in front of the Soviet-era KGB headquarters, now home to Russia's main. FELIX DZERZHINSKY: RETURN OF A HERO. As politicians in Moscow debate the restoration of a large, bronze statute, current U.S. press reports have not relayed the underlying significance of the image, or its continuing importance. The statue commemorates Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Bolshevik who died in 1926, but whose legacy still inspires both pride. Felix Edmundovič Dzeržinskij (rusky Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский, transkripcí Feliks Edmundovič Dzeržinskij, rodným jménem Feliks Dzierżyński; 11. září 1877, Oziembłow - 20. července 1926, Moskva) byl ruský revolucionář a sovětský politik polského původu. V mládí se podílel na vzniku sociálně demokratické strany v Polsku a Litvě, byl.

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Felix Dzerzhinsky was born August 30 (September 11 new style) in 1877 in the Vilna province of the Russian Empire, in Dzerzhinovo on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. The Dzerzhinsky. Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment - The Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment (German: Wachregiment Feliks E. Dzierzynski) was the paramilitary wing of the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), the security service of the German Aktuelle Buch-Tipps und Rezensionen. Alle Bücher natürlich versandkostenfre

Exposing the Jewish Criminal Felix Dzerzhinsky - Death of

Felix Dzerzhinsky was born in Russia. After attending the Wilno Gymnasium and briefly considering a career in the priesthood, he joined a Marxist organization called the Union of Workers. An Iron Felix statue dedicated to him once sat in Moscow's Lubyanka Square. Felix Dzerzhinsky was a Virgo and was born in the G.I. Generation Felix escaped from it 2 years later and fled to Vilnius, but later was arrested again and sent to Warsaw Citadel and Siedlce prison. However, the young man managed to escape again. Dzerzhinsky has always been the follower of the ideas of Rosa Luxemburgh who was the developer of Marxism ideology, as well as the activist in revolutionary circles. Felix Dzerzhinsky is probably best remembered in the west, and obscurely at that, as being the nemesis of Sidney Reilly in Reilly, Ace of Spies. He was the founder of the Soviet security service, or Cheka, in 1917 Felix Dzerzhinsky toppled. Photo credit: AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko. By Peter Galuszka. For three decades, a 15-ton statue of Felix Dzerzhinsky loomed over a square in downtown Moscow. He rose high near the Lubyanka building, a turn of the century, yellow-colored one-time insurance office that served as the national headquarters for the KGB Felix Dzerzhinsky is often referred to as a Pole, but this is misleading, as he was a revolutionary jew, which should come as no surprise to any student of Bolshevik history. From The Moscow Times : Basically, many people in the Federal Security Service, or FSB, still cannot forgive Jews for founding the KGB

A public lecture by Dr Iain Lauchlan (University of Edinburgh)AbstractThis paper investigates the fall of Iron Felix Dzerzhinsky. He was the creator of the.. Dzerzhinsky was nicknamed Iron Felix because of the ruthless methods he introduced as head of the Cheka, later named the KGB, to liquidate opponents. The killings, torture, deportation and. The statue of the founder of the KGB, Felix Dzerzhinsky, was toppled from its pedestal in front of K.G.B. headquarters in Moscow in 1991. Credit.. A devout Polish Catholic, Felix Dzerzhinsky was once asked why he was sure there was a God. God is in the heart, the teenager replied. If I ever come to the conclusion that there is no God, I would put a bullet in my head. A few years later, he realized just how alone humanity [

Felix Dzerzhinsky - Russiapedia Politics and society

  1. Felix Dzerzhinsky, who established the Soviet secret police, was a Polish aristocrat. made many remarks about Jews to Felix Chuev in a series of conversations between 1969 to 1986 that became.
  2. The reference here is to the thoughts aroused in F. E. Dzerzhinsky by the confirmation of the sentence to exile him, which meant that he had to leave the prison. 3. Letters written between 1898 and 1916 in prison and exile, except for the letter dated October 6 (September 23), 1902. 4. Edmundovna Bulhak - F. E. Dzerzhinsky's sister. 5. G. A
  3. Amid the rush of victory, the crowd stared up at a mammoth, 16-ton monument to Iron Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder and patron saint of the Soviet secret police. Their one shared thought.
  4. From a Prison Diary. From Letters to Relatives. From the Article 'Citizens! Railwaymen!', December 6 1921. From a Circular Letter to the Managements of Syndicates and Trusts, June 19, 192
  5. g a Catholic priest. However, this dream ended when Dzerzhinsky pledged his loyalty to Marxism.
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Felix Dzerzhinsky - New World Encyclopedi

Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński [ˈfɛliks dʑerˈʐɨɲski]; 11 September [O.S. 30 August] 1877 - 20 July 1926) was a Soviet statesman and a prominent member of Polish and Russian revolutionary movements. He is better known under his nickname as the Iron Felix, Bloody Felix, or abbreviation FD View the profiles of people named Felix Dzerzhinsky. Join Facebook to connect with Felix Dzerzhinsky and others you may know. Facebook gives people the.. Felix Dzerzhinsky, interviewed in Novaia Zhizn (14th July, 1918). Convinced that all opposition was counterrevolutionary, the Bolshevik leadership created the Commission for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage Dec. 4, 1918. Felix Dzerzhinsky received the nod to head the new organization

The Felix Dzerzhinsky was returned to Gulag service after the war and is one of the ships mentioned in recent joint Russia/US investigations into America POW/MIAs: there are witnesses who claim the Felix Dzerzhinsky took U.S. military personal -- imprisoned by the Soviets -- into the Gulag camps in Kolyma A new statue of Comrade Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka (The All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage), was tod.. The FD locomotives are named after Felix Dzerzhinsky, Феликс Дзержинский, his nickname was Iron Felix. Felix Dzerzhinsky lived from 1877 until 1926 and was the director of the GPU, Cheka and OGPU, all political and government institutes and the secret police Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky was a Soviet statesman and a prominent member of Polish and Russian revolutionary movements. He is better known under his nickname as the Iron Felix, Bloody Felix, or abbreviation FD.His party pseudonyms were Yatsek, Yakub, Pereplyotchik, Franek, Astronom, Yuzef, and Domanski.. He was a member of several revolutionary committees such as the Polish Revkom as well.

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Felix Dzerzhinsky — 'Iron Felix,' founder of the Bolshevik secret police — looks like he may be coming home, 30 years after his statue was pulled down from its place in front of the KGB's Lubyanka headquarters. Dzerzhinsky, a Polish aristocrat turned revolutionary, was charged by Lenin in 1917 to form what was then called the All. Updated | Felix Dzerzhinsky must be chortling in his Red Square tomb. Nearly a century ago the first head of the Soviet secret police perfected the art of disinformation, the clever crafting of. Felix Dzerzhinsky was born on 11 September 1877 at the Dzerzhinovo family estate, about 15 km (9.3 mi) away from a small town of Ivyanets, in the Minsk Region, a part of the Russian Empire (today Belarus ). His aristocratic family belonged to the former Polish szlachta (nobility), of the Sulima coat of arms. As a child, before taking to Marxist.

Felix Dzerzhinsky - Spartacus Educationa

Felix Dzerzhinsky - 'Iron Felix,' founder of the Bolshevik secret police - looks like he may be coming home, thirty years after his statue was pulled down from its place in front of the. Felix Dzerzhinsky : biography 1877 - 20 July 1926 Dzerzhinsky and Lenin Dzerzhinsky became a Bolshevik as late as 1917. Therefore it is wrong to claim, as the official Soviet historians later did, that Dzerzhinsky had been one of Lenin's oldest and most reliable comrades, or that Lenin had exercised some sort of spellbinding influence [ If you look up Iron Felix in Wikipedia, you will see three definitions, representing (a) the infamous Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka secret police, (b) the infamous statue of said Felix that stood in Lubyanka square in Moscow until it went with the regime that erected it, and (c) a mechanical pinwheel calculator named after the aforementioned man Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926) was a minor aristocrat of Polish birth who oversaw the Bolshevik party's much-feared security agencies, the Cheka and the OGPU.. Dzerzhinsky was born in Ivyanets in what is now Belarus. His family were aristocratic Poles with their own estate, his father worked as a teacher of physics and mathematics

Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Russian revolutionary

Likewise, Dzerzhinsky — though his name is borne throughout Russia by dozens of monuments, around 1300 streets and a city of 240,000 — is a far less prominent figure than Lenin or Stalin. Felix Dzerzhinskij./ Felix Dzerzhinsky., 1956, Moscow by n/a and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com Felix Dzerzhinsky. AKA Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. The Black Pope of Bolshevism. Birthplace: Oshmyansky, Vilno, Russian Empire Location of death: Moscow, Russia Cause of . [1] Old Style, 30 August 1877. New Style, 11 September 1877. Father: Edmund Dzerzhinsky (Polish nobleman) Brother: Vladislav Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Sister: A. Edmundovna. Felix Dzerzhinsky's national animal is the Eagle, which soars majestically through the nation's famously clear skies. Felix Dzerzhinsky is ranked 37,467 th in the world and 486 th in The Communist Bloc for Safest, scoring 105.2 on the Bubble-Rapp Safety Rating Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński [ˈfɛlʲiks dʑerˈʐɨɲskʲi]; 11 September [O.S. 30 August] 1877 - 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Soviet statesman of Polish descent and a prominent member of revolutionary movements

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Love and hate for 'Iron Felix': Why do Russians still

About: Felix Dzerzhinsky. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński [ˈfɛliɡz dʑɛrˈʐɨj̃skʲi]; Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; 11 September [O.S. 30 August] 1877 - 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and official. Born into Polish nobility. English: The Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment (de:Wachregiment Feliks Dzierzynski) was an elite motorized rifles regiment under the command of the Ministry for State Security of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). It was named in honor of Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Soviet secret police In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, and its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. Bishkek - Wikipedia One of the younger Polish students at this gymnasium was the future Communist leader Feliks Dzierżyński, who later became Piłsudski's arch-enemy Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky ( tiếng Nga: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский; Ba Lan: Feliks Dzierżyński [ˈfɛlʲiks dʑerˈʐɨɲskʲi] (11 tháng 9 [ lịch cũ 30 tháng 8] năm 1877-20 tháng 7 năm 1926), là một nhà cách mạng Bolshevik Ba Lan và Nga và một chính khách Liên Xô. Ông là thành.

How KGB founder Iron Felix justified terror and mass

Felix Dzerzhinsky. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky ( Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский) was the head of the Soviet first secret service, the Cheka, from 1917-1922 and of the Cheka's successors, the GPU and the OGPU, from 1922-1926. Dzerzhinsky was also one of the lead architects of the. Macleod was a Trotskyist back in the 1980's but these days is more of a Libertarian anarcho-capitalist. In the book Macleod imagines a near future Balkanized anarcho-captialist Britain. In this future Moh Kohn works as a security mercenary for a private military contractor ironically named The Felix Dzerzhinsky Workers Defence Collective Felix Dzerzhinsky did not learn anything at university. His learned in life university, i.e. he was a professional leftist revolutionaire. He barely finished Gymnasium, with the following grades: Religion - good; Logic, Latin, Algebra, Geometr.. the Creator of the Cheka Felix Dzerzhinsky died in Moscow in 1926, while still not an old man. Few people know that his wife Sophia has experienced iron Felix by as much as 42. Revolutionary love. In 1905, the 23-year-old daughter of a Warsaw accountant Sofia sigizmundovna Mushkat joined the party of the Polish-Lithuanian social. Such was the omnipotence of the Jewish firebrand that he had the power to destroy V I. Lenin and Felix Dzerzhinsky chairman of the Cheka. As Chairman of the Central Executive Committee Sverdlov was pivotal persona of the assembly's organisers who inspired, initiated and carried out the genocide of Russians, Ukrainians, Cossacks and other.

Felix D. was a Polish aristocrat, Bolshevik and creator of the Cheka or Secret Police during the Russian revolution. He killed thousands of counter revolutionaries and all he needed was a confession to do so. Trials were therefore short and executions summarily Felix Dzerzhinsky. Recently released Soviet archives have also shed light on Ransome's story. One question that still remains, however, is whether he was actually a double agent -a man whose ultimate loyalty was not to London but to Moscow. Admittedly, t here's no absolute proof either way. But we do know that he and his wife Evgenia. Felix Dzerzhinsky: A Biography Hardcover - January 1, 1988. Felix Dzerzhinsky: A Biography. Hardcover - January 1, 1988. by Anon. (Author), Natalia Belskaya (Translator) 4.0 out of 5 stars. 2 ratings. See all formats and editions. Hide other formats and editions. Price

Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926) was a loyal associate of Lenin and Stalin. Dzerzhinsky was born into the family of a small landowner in Lithuania, of Polish nationality. At the age of 17 he participated in the socialist movement; a year later he became a member of the Lithuanian Social-Democratic Party and from then on devoted himself entirely to. MOSCOW -- To many, the tall statue of Feliks Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the Cheka secret police, was a symbol of bloody Soviet repression, and the moment when it was pulled down from its pedestal.

Felix Dzerzhinsky - History Learning Sit

Felix Dzerzhinsky was born on September 11, 1877, one of nine children born to Polish aristocrats Edmund Dzerzhinsky and Helena Januszewska. Edmund was a graduate of the physics and mathematics department at St. Petersburg University where he reportedly seduced Helena while working for her father (Ratkovsky, 2014, 2015) Felix Dzerzhinsky became the initiator of an important state program for growing the generation that had suffered in the war, which should not only be fed, clothed and shod, but also brought up in the spirit of the new social order. To this end, children's homes, special detention facilities and children's communes were created all over Russia.. In this Wednesday, May 18, 2011 photo a visitor looks at a drawing showing Vladimir Lenin flanked by Felix Dzerzhinsky, right, and Yakov Sverdlov in Red Square, on display at the exhibition in the. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Soviet statesman of Polish descent and a prominent member of revolutionary movements. His party pseudonyms were Yatsek, Yakub, Pereplyotchik (meaning bookbinder), Franek, Astronom, Yuzef and Domanski

Felix Dzerzhinsky — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI

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Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment - Wikipedi

In 1909, following his 1908 arrest, Dzerzhinsky was able to escape to Italy with the help of author and fellow revolutionary Maxim Gorky. Felix Dzerzhinsky Popularity Most Popular #19329 Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926), whose initials the camera would bear, was the founder and first leader of the Soviet secret police, or Cheka as it was originally called, from the time of its inception in late 1917. The name Cheka came from the Russian initials of its formidable formal title, All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for.

Forgotten Leaders. Episode 1. Felix Dzerzhinsky ..

Character » Felix Dzerzhinsky appears in 7 issues. Summary. Short summary describing this character. Navigation. Character Wiki. Images (1) Forum (0) News; Recommended reading. Death: October 02, 1960 (49) Mocква, Russian Federation. Place of Burial: Moskva, gorod Moskva, Moscow, Russia. Immediate Family: Son of Felix Dzerzhinsky, Bloody Felix and Zofia Julia Dzierżyńska. Husband of Любовь Федоровна Дзержинская. Father of Private Posts about Felix Dzerzhinsky written by ianmoore3000. Lenin's life hung in the balance after he was shot by Fanny Kaplan, but now he appears to be on the mend, to the relief of his Bolshevik followers. Kaplan meanwhile has been interrogated and probably tortured by the Cheka, the Soviet political police.They are keen to discover whether she was working as part of a wider plot, either with. By Stephen Dalziel. BBC Russian affairs analyst. A furious row has erupted in Moscow over a suggestion by the city's Mayor, Yuri Luzhkov, that a statue of the founder of the secret police be restored to its plinth. The statue of Felix Dzerzhinsky was removed in 1991, following the collapse of the coup against the then Soviet leader, Mikhail.

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Felix Dzerzhinsky. Arkady Shaikhet/MAMM/MDF. Today, Iron Felix is one of the most controversial figures of the Soviet era. He is known as the architect of the Soviet secret police and the creator of the machinery for repressing counter-revolutionary activity. He died on July 20, 1926, of a heart attack; his funeral was swarming with employees. Felix Dzerzhinsky was a Bolshevik revolutionary and official, first Soviet secret service founder. During our tour you will know history of Felix Dzerzhinskiy and its family, look at personal things (table, where he worked, personal briefcase, umbrella), gifts and souvenirs from foreign visitors Politician Felix Dzerzhinsky were born on Tuesday, birthstone is Sapphire, the seaon was Summer in the Chinese year of , it is 241 days until Felix Dzerzhinsky next birthday. September 11 Horoscope . Today's Russia Birthday Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. Longer titles found: Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment (), Monument to Felix Dzerzhinsky () searching for Felix Dzerzhinsky 40 found (305 total) alternate case: felix Dzerzhinsky Ugresha Monastery (430 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to articl Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and official. From 1917 until his death in 1926, Dzerzhinsky led the first two Soviet state security organizations, the Cheka and the OGPU, establishing a secret police for the post-revolutionary Soviet government. He was one of the architects of the mass killings of hundreds of thousands of people.